Spatial pattern of environmental vulnerability with emphasis on exposure and sensitivity dimensions in Iran

Document Type : Research Article


1 PhD scholar in Demography, Department of Demography, Faculty of Social Sciences, University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran

2 Professor, Department of Environmental Science, Natural Resources Faculty, University of ‎Tehran, Karaj, Iran

3 Professor of Demography, Faculty of Social Sciences, University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran; and Visiting Fellow Professor, School of Demography, Australian National University, Canberra, Australia



A detailed road map for environmental sustainability is provided by a thorough understanding of the environment's vulnerability, both technically and theoretically. Nonetheless, understanding the problems that arise is critical due to the limitations of the data and the uncertainty of the methods used. Using satellite images coded in Google Earth Engine and the Getis spatial autocorrelation method in the form of the "vulnerability" theory, this paper examines the environmental status of Iran in 397 counties between 2011 and 2022. According to the findings of Getis, Iran is exposed to the spread of air pollution (in counties ranging from the southwest to the south and southeast, central counties); Methane greenhouse gas (GHG) (central counties and to the south and southeast); carbon GHG (central counties to the east, south, and southeast); Temperature changes (the south, southwest, east, southeast, and central counties); precipitation changes (counties from the center to the south and southeast); underground water (counties from the northwest to the northeast and west to the south); biodiversity (counties of the center to the east, south, and southeast), and soil erosion (in the northern, northwestern, and western bar counties). Furthermore, in relation to the air pollution release (southern, central, and northern counties); carbon GHG (eastern counties, south to west and north strip); methane GHG (northern, northeastern, and central counties); Temperature-induced climate change (Northern, Northwest, and West counties); Precipitation-induced climate change (northern counties, northwest, center to east); groundwater (northern and northwest counties); Biodiversity (southern to central counties); Soil erosion (the counties of the West, Southwest, and Southeast) is sensitive. As a result, the genealogy of environmental dimensions in Iran reveals an uneven and risky spatial pattern in which mismanagement of this vulnerable environment and a disregard for the role of population dynamics' adaptive capacity can have numerous social, health, and political-security consequences.


Main Subjects


Articles in Press, Accepted Manuscript
Available Online from 09 December 2023
  • Receive Date: 25 September 2023
  • Revise Date: 17 November 2023
  • Accept Date: 09 December 2023