The Impact of Air Quality Index (AQI) and Meteorological Factors on Covid-19 Outbreak (Case Study: Tehran Province)

Document Type : Research Article


1 Department of Environment, Faculty of Fisheries and Environmental Sciences, Gorgan University of Agricultural Sciences and Natural Resources, Gorgan, Iran

2 Assistant Professor of Environment Department, Gorgan University of Agricultural Sciences and Natural Resources, Gorgan. Iran

3 Associate Professor of Environment Department, Gorgan University of Agricultural Sciences and Natural Resources, Gorgan. Iran


The relationship between air quality and the spread of Covid-19 has been proven to be sometimes positive and sometimes negative in previous studies. A research gap was seen in Iran regarding the impact of air quality on the spread of Covid-19. Thus, this study examined the relationship between the reproductive number of Covid-19 with the air quality index and meteorological factors. The reproductive number is an index to explain the spread of a viral disease. The air quality index related to each of the pollutants NO2, O3, CO, PM2.5, PM10, and the criterion pollutant were utilized in this study. Meteorological factors, including temperature, relative humidity, precipitation, air pressure, and wind speed were used. The data were obtained weekly and at Tehran province. The dependence of variables was determined using Pearson and Spearman correlation coefficients. The examined relationships were then estimated by regression. Each independent variable was tested in a distinct regression because of the limitations of the study. The linear and curvature regressions were performed according to the dispersion of variables and statistical assumptions. The best model was fitted based on statistical significance and regression coefficient of determination. The results of correlation tests showed the dependence of reproductive number with PM10, PM2.5, SO2 and relative humidity. Regression tests also confirmed the relationship between the reproductive number (dependent variable) and each of the independent variables PM10 (coefficient of determination 0.274), PM2.5 (coefficient of determination 0.358), SO2 (coefficient of determination 0.359), and relative humidity (determination coefficient 0.213). The results indicated that an increase in PM10, PM2.5, SO2 and decrease in relative humidity was associated with an increase in spread of Covid-19.

Graphical Abstract

The Impact of Air Quality Index (AQI) and Meteorological Factors on Covid-19 Outbreak (Case Study: Tehran Province)


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Volume 12, Issue 2 - Serial Number 46
February 2023
Pages 147-163
  • Receive Date: 08 October 2022
  • Revise Date: 06 December 2022
  • Accept Date: 18 December 2022
  • First Publish Date: 22 December 2022