Evaluation of ECMWF Center Data in Monitoring and Forecasting Dust Storms in Southwestern Iran (Case Study: Khuzestan Plain)

Document Type : Research Article


1 PhD Candidate in Climatology, Faculty of Geography, Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran, Iran

2 PhD Candidate in Climatology, Faculty of Geography, Khwarazmi University, Tehran, Iran


In order to investigate dust storms in Khuzestan plain, statistics of 13 synoptic stations in a period of 17 years (2000-2000) were used. One day was chosen as a stormy day when the horizontal visibility of less than 200 to 100 meters was reported in more than 70% of the stations. To analyze the weather conditions, the networked data of the European Center for Medium-Term Forecasting were used. To show the spatial pattern of dust, the AOD values ​​of the MODIS sensor were used. Studies have shown that four spatial patterns in the region cause such conditions. Dust transfer from the north and west of Iraq and eastern Syria as the main centers and dry border areas between Khuzestan province and Iraq are considered as intensifying dust activities. Increased unstable conditions in the lower levels and the existence of a series of atmospheric disturbances that have taken place in a dry manner have caused dust to rise from possible areas and flow into the area. By indexing, the relative fineness parameter of 850 hPs was found to be suitable in identifying possible foci of fine dust. Thus, to predict dust in the region when the wind speed reaches its maximum on the dust centers, it is expected to witness the occurrence of severe dust storms with a delay of 24 to 48 hours in the region. However, the existence of instabilities and the increase of relative equilibrium on the foci have caused the mentioned process to increase and the particles to flow to the region in less than 24 hours.

Graphical Abstract

Evaluation of ECMWF Center Data in Monitoring and Forecasting Dust Storms in Southwestern Iran (Case Study: Khuzestan Plain)


حجتی، سعید؛ 1400. منشاءیابی و ارزیابی وضعیت آلودگی گرد و غبار خیابانی شهر اهواز به برخی عناصر سنگین. مهندسی زراعی (مجله علمی کشاورزی). جلد 44. شماره 1. بهار 1400.
رنجبر سعادت‌آبادی، عباس؛ میهن‌پرست، مجتبی؛ نوری، فائزه؛ 1395. بررسی پدیده گردوغبار در غرب ایران از دیدگاه هواشناختی (مطالعه بلندمدت و کوتاه‌مدت). مجله علمی و ترویجی نیوار. دوره 40. شماره 92-93. صص 66-53
سبحانی، بهروز؛ صفریان زنگیر، وحید؛ فیض­اله­زاده، سینا؛ 1399. مدل‌سازی و پیش‌بینی گرد و غبار در غرب ایران. پژوهش‌های جغرافیای طبیعی. دورۀ 25. شمارۀ 1. بهار 1399. صص 35-17.
صفری، اعظم؛ دوستان، رضا؛ مفیدی، عباس؛ 1392. شناسایی منابع غبار توفان‌های گردوغباری جنوب غرب ایران. وزارت علوم. تحقیقات و فناوری - دانشگاه فردوسی مشهد - دانشکده ادبیات و علوم انسانی دکتر علی شریعتی - 1392 - [کارشناسی ارشد].
فرهادی پور، سعید، آزادی، مجید، علی‌اکبری بیدختی، عباسعلی، علیزاده چوبری، امید، سیاری، حبیب‌الله؛ 1396. توفان‌های خاک در منطقه غرب و جنوب غرب ایران و تأثیر آن‌ها بر شارهای تابشی: مطالعه موردی. مجله ژئوفیزیک ایران. جلد 11 شماره (3). صص 89-75. 3.89-75.
لشکری، حسن؛ کیخسروی قاسم؛ 1387. تحلیل آماری سینوپتیکی توفان‌های گردوغبار استان خراسان رضوی در فاصله زمانی 2005-1993، پژوهش‌های جغرافیای طبیعی. دوره 40. شماره 65. صص 33-17.
مفیدی، عباس؛ جعفری، سجاد؛ 1390. بررسی نقش گردش منطقه‌ای جو بر روی خاورمیانه در وقوع توفان‌های گردوغباری تابستانه در جنوب غرب ایران. نشریه مطالعات جغرافیایی مناطق خشک. دوره 2. شماره 5. صص 45-17. بررسی نقش گـردش منطقه‌ای جو بر روی خـاورمیانه در وقـوع تـوفان‌های (hsu.ac.ir)
Abdi Vishkaee, F., Flamant, C., Cuesta, J., Oolman, L., Flamant, P., and Khalesifard, H. R., 2012.  Dust transport over Iraq and northwest Iran associated with winter Shamal: A case study: Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres, 117(D3). 117, D03201. http://dx.doi.org/10.1029/2011JD016339
Alizadeh‐Choobari, O., Ghafarian, P., and Owlad,E., 2016. Temporal variations in the frequency and concentration of dust events over Iran based on surface observations: International Journal of Climatology, 36(4), 1575–2138. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/joc.4479
Arimoto, R., 2001. Eolian dust and climate, Relationships to sources, tropospheric chemistry, transport and deposition. Journal of Earth Sci. Rev.: 54, PP 29–42.
Attiya A, and Brian G., 2020. Assessment of mineralogical and chemical properties of airborne dust in Iraq, SN Applied Sciences, 2, PP. 1-21.
Change, C., 2001.  "The Scientific Basis. Intergovernmenta on Climate Change". by JT Houghton, Y. Ding, D. J Griggs, et al.  Cambridge Univ. Press. Cambridge.(20) (PDF) Climate Change 2001: The Scientific Basis (researchgate.net)
Dee, D. P., Uppala, S. M., Simmons, A. J., Berrisford, P., Poli, P., Kobayashi, S., ... & Vitart, F., 2011. The ERA‐Interim reanalysis: Configuration and performance of the data assimilation system. Quarterly Journal of the royal meteorological society, 137(656), 553-597. https://doi.org/10.1002/qj.828
Farhadipour, S., Azadi, M., Aliakbari Bidokhti, A., Alizadeh Choobari, O., & Sayari, H. A., 2017. Dust storms in west and southwest Iran and their impact on radiation fluxes: A case study. Iranian Journal of Geophysics, 11(3), 75-89.
Goudie, A.S., 2009. Dust storms: Recent developments. Journal of Environmental Management: 90; pp 89–94. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jenvman.2008.07.007
Goudie, A.S., Middleton, N.J., 2001. Saharan dust storms: nature and consequences. Journal of Earth Sci. Rev.: 56; pp 179–204. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0012-8252(01)00067-8
Goudie, A.S., Middleton, N.J., 2006. Desert Dust in the Global System. Springer, Heidelberg.
 Jafari M, Mesbahzadeh T, Masoudi R, Zehtabian G, Torkmahalleh MA., 2021. Dust storm surveying and detection using remote sensing data, wind tracing and atmospheric thermodynamic conditions (case study: Isfahan Province, Iran), Air Quality Atmosphere & Health:pp. 1-11. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11869-021-01021-x
Kang, S., Zhang, Y., Zhang, Y., Grigholm, B., Kaspari, S., Qin, D., Ren, J., & Mayewski, P., 2010), Variability of atmospheric dust loading over the central Tibetan Plateau based on ice core glaciochemistry. Journal of Atmospheric Environment: 44; pp 2980- 2989. https://journals.ui.ac.ir/article_18542_9720c28abda5ef3991e3be03481d7e50.pdf
Kaskaoutis, D.G., Kosmopoulos, P., Kambezidis, H.D., Nastos, P.T., 2007. Aerosol climatology and discrimination of different types over Athens, Greece based on MODIS data. Atmos. Environ. 41, 7315–7329. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.atmosenv.2007.05.017
Kaskaoutis, D.G., Kosmopoulos, P., Kambezidis, H.D., Nastos, P.T., 2007. Aerosol climatology and discrimination of different types over Athens, Greece based on MODIS data. https://doi.org/10.3390/rs8050394
Namdari S, Valizade K, Rasuly A, Sari Sarraf B., 2016. Spatio-temporal analysis of MODIS AOD over western part of Iran, Arabian Journal of Geosciences, 9: 191.
Rashki, A., Kaskaoutis, D.G., Goudie, A.S.Kahn., 2013.  Dryness of ephemeral lakes and consequences for dust activity: The case of the Hamoun drainage basin, southeastern Iran, Science of the total environment. 552-564.
Rezazadeh, M., Irannejad, P., Shao, Y., 2013. Climatology of the Middle East dust events,Aeolian Research, 103-109. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.aeolia.2013.04.001
Ridgwell, A.J., 2003. Implications of the glacial CO2 ‘iron hypothesis’ for quaternary climate change. Geochem. Geophys. Geosyst. 4 article 1076.
Shahsavani, A., Naddafi, K., Haghighifard, N. J., Mesdaghinia, A., Yunesian, M., Nabizadeh, R., and Saki, H., 2012.  The evaluation of PM 10, PM 2.5, and PM 1 concentrations during the Middle Eastern Dust (MED) events in Ahvaz, Iran, from April through September)2010(: Journal of Arid Environments, 77, 72-83. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jaridenv.2011.09.007
Tegen, I., Werner, M., Harrison, S., and Kohfeld, K., 2004.  Relative importance of climate and land use in determining present and future global soil dust emission: Geophysical Research Letters, 31, L05105. https://doi.org/10.1029/2003GL019216
Toon, O.B., 2003), African dust in Florida clouds. Journal of Nature: 424, pp 623– 624. https://doi.org/10.1038/424623a
Wong, S., Dessler, A.E., 2005. Suppression of deep convection over the tropical North Atlantic by the Saharan Air Layer. Geophys. Res. Lett. 32, DOI: 10.1029/ 2004GL022295. Suppression of deep convection over the tropical North Atlantic by the Saharan Air Layer - Wong - 2005 - Geophysical Research Letters - Wiley Online Library
 Yang, X., Zhu, B., Wang, X., Li, C., Zhou, Z., Chen, J., ... & Lu, Y., 2008. Late Quaternary environmental changes and organic carbon density in the Hunshandake Sandy land, eastern Inner Mongolia, China. Global Planet. Change: 61, pp 70–78.
Yang, X., Zhu, B., Wang, X., Li, C., Zhou, Z., Chen, J., Wang, X., Yin, J., Lu, Y., 2008.