Explaining the Role of Gender on the Intention and Adaptation Behavior of Farmers in Baghmalek County in the Face of Climate Change

Document Type : Research Article


1 PhD Graduate, Department of Agricultural Extension and Education, Faculty of Agricultural Engineering and Rural Development, Khuzestan Agriculture Sciences and Natural Resources University, Mollasani, Iran.

2 Associate Professor, Department of Agricultural Extension and Education, Faculty of Agricultural Engineering and Rural Development, Khuzestan Agriculture Sciences and Natural Resources University, Mollasani, Iran

3 Assistant Professor, Department of Agricultural Extension and Education, Faculty of Agricultural Engineering and Rural Development, Khuzestan Agriculture Sciences and Natural Resources University, Mollasani, Iran.


Climate change is increasingly affecting people's livelihoods around the world and is considered as an important challenge at the global level; in fact, it is an important factor in aggravating social inequalities, especially gender inequalities. Women in the world are not only known as a vulnerable group in front of climate changes but also they are considered an effective factor in creating changes in relation to adaptation. Therefore, there is a need for research on the factors influencing the intention and behavior of farmers to adapt to climate change from the perspective of women and men. This study addresss this important issue using the developed model of health beliefs. The statistical population of this research included both male and female farmers. The number of sample members using Karjesi and Morgan Table included 200 male farmers and 150 female farmers. Random stratified cluster multistage sampling was used to select the farmers. The data collection tool was a questionnaire which its face validity was confirmed by the faculty members of the Department of Agricultural Extension and Education. In addition, to determine the degree of reliability, pre-test and Cronbach's alpha coefficient were used. The results of the structural equation model analysis showed that the variables guiding action, self-efficacy, social support, motivation and perceived obstacles were the variables which would affect the male farmers' intention in a positive and direct way and would affect their behavior in a positive and indirect way. Finally, these variables could predict 53 and 37% of the changes in the variables of male farmers' intention and behavior, respectively. Action guiding variables, perceived intensity and self-efficacy were found to be the variables influencing the intention of female farmers in a positive and direct way and their behavior in a positive and indirect way. These variables in total were 63 and 19 respectively to predict the percentage of changes in the variables of intention and behavior of female farmers. The data obtained in this research and the understanding of such gender differences can facilitate the development of gender-sensitive policies and programs  to improve sustainable and inclusive adaptation strategies.

Graphical Abstract

Explaining the Role of Gender on the Intention and Adaptation Behavior of Farmers in Baghmalek County in the Face of Climate Change


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  • Receive Date: 20 September 2021
  • Revise Date: 13 October 2021
  • Accept Date: 20 November 2021
  • First Publish Date: 20 November 2021