Synoptic and Thermodynamic Analysis of Thunder Storms in Plateau of Iran

Document Type : Research Article


1 Department of Climatology, Mohaghegh Ardabili University, Ardabil, Iran

2 Department of Climatology, Kharazmi University, Tehran, Iran.


Iran is a country that is faced with storms, thunderstorms, hail and floods every year. Therefore, in the present study, the temporal and spatial distribution and synoptic and thermodynamic analysis of the thunder storm occurrence in a large part of the Iran have been addressed. For this purpose, the data related to days with a thunderstorm of 20 synoptic stations in the eastern part of the Iran and geopotential heights (hgt), omega and specific moisture content (shum) data were used during the statistical period (2010-2015). After extraction of days with thunderstorms, ArcGIS software and IDW method were used for the temporal and spatial distribution maps. Then, using GrADS software synoptic maps were prepared and analyzed for different levels of atmosphere. Also, for the thermodynamic analysis, the Skew-t charts and CAPE and PWAT indices were used. The results of the temporal and spatial distribution have showed that from Jiroft city in the province of Kerman to the high latitudes in April and May, the highest frequency of thunder storms is observed and to the lower latitudes from December to February, there are a lot of thunder storms. In the northern part of the study area, the most frequent occurrence is in the spring and in the southern part of the region, the most occurrences occur in the winter. In total, in all the study areas throughout the year, there is shortly thunderstorm event. The results of the synoptic analysis also showed that during the days with thunderstorms, the negative omega and the ascending and unstable air, and on the other hand, the influence of moisture on the atmosphere of the area and the placement under the cut of low and the front of the Trough, conditions for the occurrence of this Provides a phenomenon. Investigating the skew-t charts and the CAPE and PWAT indices also indicate that there is more humidity in storm day than the day before the storm and the instability resulting from a severe convective rise (about twice) on the day of thunderstorm.

Graphical Abstract

Synoptic and Thermodynamic Analysis of Thunder Storms in Plateau of Iran


 امیدوار، کمال؛ صفر پور، فرشاد؛ زنگنه، اسماعیل؛ 1392. بررسی و تحلیل همدیدی سه رخداد تگرگ شدید در استان فارس. جغرافیا و توسعه. 30: 157-178.
ایرانپور، فخرالدین؛ یزدان پناه، حجت‌الله؛ حنفی، علی؛ 1394. تحلیل همدیدی و ترمودینامیکی طوفان­های تندری در ایستگاه­های هواشناسی همدان. جغرافیا و مخاطرات محیطی. 13: 131-115.
خوش‌اخلاق، فرامرز؛ ماهوتچی، محمدحسن؛ 1398. واکاوی همدیدی بارش‌های تندری مخرب مشهد. فصلنامه علوم و تکنولوژی محیط‌زیست. 21(12): 235-249.
سیف، مهرزاد؛ 1375. بررسی توزیع بارش تگرگ در ایران و مطالعه موردی آن. پایان‌نامه کارشناسی ارشد. موسسه ژئوفیزیک. دانشگاه تهران.
صفری، زهرا؛ 1393. تحلیل آماری طوفان­های تندری و الگوهای سینوپتیکی توام با آن در استان زنجان. پایان­نامه کارشناسی ارشد اقلیم‌شناسی. دانشگاه زنجان.
صلاحی، برومند؛ 1389. بررسی ویژگی­های آماری و همدیدی طوفان­های تندری استان اردبیل. پژوهش­های جغرافیای طبیعی. 72: 129-141.
علیزاده، امین؛ کمالی، غلامعلی؛ موسوی، فرهاد؛ موسوی بایگی، محمد؛ 1386. هوا و اقلیم­شناسی. چاپ دهم. انتشارات دانشگاه فردوسی مشهد.
فلک، عسل؛ برنا، رضا؛ اسدیان، فریده؛ 1399. تحلیل زمانی و مکانی طوفان­های تندری جنوب غربی ایران. جغرافیایی سرزمین. 17(67): 90-103.
معصوم پور سماکوش، جعفر؛ میری، مرتضی؛ رحیمی، مجتبی؛ 1395. واکاوی آماری- همدیدی طوفان­های تندری سواحل جنوبی ایران. فیزیک زمین و فضا. 3: 708- 697.
میراحمدی، اکبر؛ 1391. بررسی ویژگی­های آماری طوفان­های تندری در کوهرنگ بختیاری. همایش ملی انتقال آب بین حوضه­ای (چالش‌ها و فرصت‌ها). 6 ص.
Changnon Jr, S.A. and Hsu, C.F., 1984. Temporal distributions of global thunder days. Illinois State Water Survey.
Chaudhuri, S. and Middey, A., 2014. Comparison of tropical and midlatitude thunderstorm characteristics anchored in thermodynamic and dynamic aspects. Asia-Pacific Journal of Atmospheric Sciences, 50(2):179-189.
Galway, J.G., 1956. The lifted index as a predictor of latent instability. Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society, 37(10):528-529.
George, J., 1960. Weather Forecasting for Aeronautics–Academic Press. New York: 41.
Gottlieb, R., 2009. Analysis of stability indices for severe thunderstorms in the northeastern united states. M.Sc. Thesis, Cornell University, Ithaca, USA118.
Helali, J., Momenzadeh, H., Salimi, S. Hosseini, S.A., Mohamadi, S.M., Maghami Moghim. Gh., Pazhoh, F., Ahmadi, M., 2021. Synoptic-dynamic analysis of precipitation anomalies over Iran in different phases of ENSO. Arab J Geosci 14, 2322.
Henry, N.L., 2000. A static stability index for low-topped convection. Weather and forecasting, 15(2): 246-254.
Krauss, T.W. and Santos, J.R., 2004. Exploratory analysis of the effect of hail suppression operations on precipitation in Alberta. Atmospheric research, 71(1-2):35-50.
Lanz, T.M. and Romppainen-Martius, O., 2020, Lagrangian Analysis of Thunderstorms in Switzerland.
Miller, R.C., 1975. Notes on analysis and severe-storm forecasting procedures of the Air Force Global Weather Central (Vol. 200). Air Weather Service) AWS(, Scott Air Force Base, USAF: 190.
 Mohee, F.M. and Miller, C., 2010. Climatology of thunderstorms for North Dakota, 2002–06. Journal of Applied Meteorology and Climatology, 49(9): 1881-1890.
Moncrieff, M.W. and Miller, M.J., 1976. The dynamics and simulation of tropical cumulonimbus and squall lines. Quarterly Journal of the Royal Meteorological Society, 102(432): 373-394.
Pizzuti, A., Soula, S., Mlynarczyk, J., Bennett, A. and Fullekrug, M., 2020, May. Analysis of sprite events during small-scale winter thunderstorms in northern Europe. In EGU General Assembly Conference Abstracts: 20065.
Queralt, S., Hernandez, E., Gallego, D. and Iturrioz, I., 2007. Atmospheric instability analysis and its relationship to precipitation patterns over the western Iberian Peninsula. Advances in Geosciences, 10: 39-44.
Showalter, A.K., 1953. A stability index for thunderstorm forecasting. Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society, 34(6): 250-252.
Thompson, R.L., Edwards, R. and Mead, C.M., 2004, October. An update to the supercell composite and significant tornado parameters. In Preprints, 22nd Conf. on Severe Local Storms, Hyannis, MA, Amer. Meteor. Soc.