Explaining the factors affecting social resilience against biological hazards with emphasis on Covid-19 (Case Study: Zanjan City)

Document Type : Research Article


1 PhD student in Geography and Urban Planning, University of Zanjan, Zanjan, Iran

2 Associate Professor of Geography and Urban Planning, University of Zanjan, Zanjan, Iran

3 Assistant Professor of Geography and Urban Planning, University of Zanjan, Zanjan, Iran

4 Associate Professor of Social Medicine, Zanjan University of Medical Sciences, Zanjan, Iran


The purpose of this paper is to explain the factors affecting social resilience against biological hazards with emphasis on Covid-19 in order to unveil the shadowing of this phenomenon, a phenomenon that has long been discussed from its text layers and sub-layers to different angles of attitude drills. The research method in this study, in terms of descriptive - analytical and practical purpose. To collect the required data, the library method (Covid 19 disease distribution map, valid books and articles in line with the research topic) and the survey method were used as a questionnaire and Delphi method. To analyze the data and prepare the data, SPSS software was used for the statistical population of 133156 households in Zanjan with a sample size of 321 and data analysis was performed using research analytical tools (from exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis model in the form of structural equation modeling). The results show that the analysis of conceptual characteristics using heuristic factor analysis reveals the four main explanatory factors as factors; Awareness and health with a coefficient of 0.74, attitude with a coefficient of 0.78, skill with a coefficient of 0.82, social capital and justice with a coefficient of 0.73 identified the contract and analysis of the communication structure of the identified effective factors using confirmatory factor analysis showed that the identified factors have a structural relationship It is significant for being effective in social resilience against Corona in Zanjan.


 بسطامی‌نیا، امیر؛ رضائی، محمدرضا؛ سرائی، محمدحسین؛ 1397. تبیین و تحلیل تاب‌آوری اجتماعی برای مقابله با سوانح طبیعی. فصلنامه دانش پیشگیری و مدیریت بحران. ۸ (۳): ۲۰۹-۲۲۴.
رفیعیان، مجتبی؛ رضایی، محمدرضا؛ عسگری، علی؛ پرهیزکار، اکبر؛ شایان، سیاوش؛ 1390. تبیین مفهومی تاب‌آوری و شاخص‌سازی آن در مدیریت سوانح اجتماع‌محور (CBDM). برنامه‌ریزی و آمایش فضا. ۱۵ (۴): ۱۹-۴۱.
مرکز پژوهش‌های مجلس؛ 1399. درباره مقابله با شیوع ویروس کرونا (28) چالش‌های خانواده ایرانی در مواجهه با کرونا. گزارش پژوهشی، معاونت پژوهش‌های فرهنگی و اجتماعی، دفتر مطالعات آموزش و فرهنگ. قابل‌دسترسی در پایگاه مجازی مرکز پژوهش‌های مجلس.
مرکز پژوهش‌های مجلس؛ 1399. درباره مقابله با شیوع ویروس کرونا (32) بررسی ابعاد گسترش ویروس کرونا بر حوزه شهری و شهرسازی. گزارش پژوهشی، معاونت پژوهش‌های زیربنایی و امور تولیدی، دفتر مطالعات زیربنایی. قابل‌دسترسی در پایگاه مجازی مرکز پژوهش‌های مجلس.
میرزایی، محمد؛ دارابی، سعد اله؛ باباپور، میترا؛ 1396. سال‌خوردگی جمعیت در ایران و هزینه‌های رو به افزایش بهداشت و درمان. سالمند: مجله سالمندی ایران. ۱۲ (۲): ۱۵۶-۱۶۹.
Acuto, M., 2020. COVID-19: Lessons for an Urban (izing) World, On Earth Journal, Cell Press, pp 317-319.
Almond, D., 2006. Is the 1918 influence pandemic over?Long-term effects of in utero influenza exposure in thepost-1940 U.S. population.Journal of Political Economy,114(4), 672 712.https://doi.org/10.1086/507154
Bill Lindeke 2020. It’s Not Density That’s Driving the American Pandemic, Streets MN (https://streets.mn); at https:// streets.mn/ 2020/ 03/ 24/ its -not- density -thats- driving- the-american -pandemic.
Burton, C. G. 2015. A validation of metrics for community resilience to natural hazards and disasters using the recovery from Hurricane Katrina as a case study. Annals of the Association of American Geographers, 105(1), 67-86.
CEBM (2020. Global COVID-19 Case Fatality Rates, Centre for Evidence-Based Medicine (www.cebm.net); at www.cebm.net/COVID-19/global-COVID-19-case-fatality-rates.
Cinner, J.; Fuentes, M. M. P. B. and Randriamahazo, H., 2009. “Exploring social resilience in Madagascar’s marine protected areas”, In: Ecology and Society 14(1), 41.
Cutter, Susan l. et al., 2008. “Community and regional resilience: Perspectives from hazards disasters and emergency management, Community and Regional Resilience Initiative,” CARRI Research Report 1, pp. 1-19.
Daneshpour, Z. A., 2020. Out of the coronavirus crisis, a new kind of urban planning must be born.
Dennis Normile., 2020. “Coronavirus Cases have Dropped Sharply in South Korea. What’s the Secret to its Success?” Science, 17 March (www.sciencemag.org); at https:// bit.ly/ 39wxa29.
Dinh, H., & Pearson, L., 2015. Specifying community economic resilience-a framework for measurement (No. 426-2016-27235).
Fleming, D. O., 2006. Risk assessment of biological hazards. Biological Safety: Principles and Practices, 79-91.
Hall, P. A., & Lamont, M., (2013). Social resilience in the neoliberal era. Cambridge University Press.
Keck, M. and P. Sakdapolrak., 2013. "What is social resilience? Lessons learned and ways forward." Erdkunde: 5-1.7
Kluge, H. H. P., 2020. Statement-Physical and mental health key to resilience during COVID-19 pandemic.
Kwok, A. H., Doyle, E. E. H., Becker, J., Johnston, D., & Paton, D., 2016. What is ‘social resilience’? Perspectives of disaster researchers, emergency management practitioners, and policymakers in New Zealand. International Journal of Disaster Risk Reduction, 19, 197-211.
Lee, V. J., Ho, M., Kai, C. W., Aguilera, X., Heymann, D., & Wilder-Smith, A., 2020. Epidemic preparedness in urban settings: new challenges and opportunities. The Lancet Infectious Diseases, 20(5), 527529.-
Litman, T., 2020. Pandemic-Resilient Community Planning. Victoria Transport Policy Institute.
Maguire, B., & Hagan, P., 2007. Disasters and communities: understanding social resilience. Australian Journal of Emergency Management, the, 22(2), 16.
Maldonado-González, A. L., Cruz-Sánchez, G. E., Bello-Benavides, L. O., & González-Gaudiano, E. J., 2019. Shared commitments towards social resilience in populations vulnerable to extreme weather conditions. Southern African Journal of Environmental Education, 35(1).
Martí, P., García-Mayor, C., & Serrano-Estrada, L., 2019. Identifying opportunity places for urban regeneration through LBSNs. Cities, 90, 191-206.
Martinelli, k., 2019. A Guide to the Most Common Workplace Hazards, high speed training. co. uk.
Matthew, R. A., & McDonald, B., 2006. Cities under siege: Urban planning and the threat of infectious disease. Journal of the American Planning Association, 72(1), 109-117.
National Institutes of Health., 2007. Understanding emerging and re-emerging infectious diseases. Biological sciences curriculum study. NIH Curriculum Supplement Series. National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD.
Ortiz, E., 2008. Towards a World Charter for the Right to the City. UNESCO, 2008, 97-106.
Oxford, J. S., 2001. The so-called Great Spanish Influenza Pandemic of 1918 may have originated in France in 1916. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London, B, 356:1857–1859.
Oxford, J. S., Sefton, A., Jackson, R., Innes, W., Daniels, R. S., and Johnson, N. P. A. S., 2002. World War I may have allowed the emergence of”Spanish” influenza. The Lancet Infectious Diseases, 2:111–114.
Pelling, M., 2020. Tomorrow’s Cities and Covid-19: A discussion document, UK Research and Innovation, Commentary accessed from https://www.tomorrowscities.org/tomorrows-cities-and-covid-19-discussion
Ramesh, S., 2015. Biological and environmental hazards, risks, and disasters. Biological and environmental hazards, risks, and disasters.
Ramesh, S., 2015. Biological and environmental hazards, risks, and disasters. Biological and environmental hazards, risks, and disasters.
Reimers, F. M., & Schleicher, A. (2020. A framework to guide an education response to the COVID-19 Pandemic of 2020. OECD. Retrieved April, 14, 2020.
Robert Steuteville., 2020. “Facts Don't Support the ‘Density Is Dangerous’ Narrative,” Public Square (www.cnu.org); at www.cnu.org/publicsquare/2020/03/23/plague-don.
Robinson, L., 2017. Words into Action Guidelines: National Disaster Risk Assessment, special topic: Public Communication for Disaster Risk Reduction. United Nations Office for Disaster Risk Reduction (UNISDR).
Ross, Helen; Cuthill, Michael; Maclean, Kirsten; Jansen, Danni & Witt, Bradd,. 2010. Understanding, Enhancing and Managing for Social resilience at the regional scale: opportunities in north Queensland.
Ruiqi Li, Peter Richmond and Bertrand M. Roehner,. 2018. “Effect of Population Density on Epidemics,” Physica A, Vol. 510, pp. 713-724 (doi.org/10.1016/j.physa.2018.07.025); at https://bit.ly/2R9TFn5.
Sadati, A. K., MH, B. L., & Bagheri Lankarani, K., 2020. Risk Society, Global Vulnerability and Fragile Resilience; Sociological View on the Coronavirus Outbreak. Shiraz E-Med J, 21, e102263.
Saja, A. A., Goonetilleke, A., Teo, M., & Ziyath, A. M., 2019. A critical review of social resilience assessment frameworks in disaster management. International journal of disaster risk reduction, 35, 101096.
Saja, A. A., Teo, M., Goonetilleke, A., Ziyath, A. M., & Gunatilake, J., 2020. Selection of surrogates to assess social resilience in disaster management using multi-criteria decision analysis. International Journal of Disaster Resilience in the Built Environment.
Saja, A. M. A., 2020. Surrogate approach to assess social resilience in disaster management (Doctoral dissertation, Queensland University of Technology).
Shatnawi, M., Lazarova-Molnar, S., & Zaki, N., 2013. Modeling and simulation of epidemic spread: Recent advances. In 2013 9th International Conference on Innovations in Information Technology (IIT) (pp. 118-123). IEEE.
Shroder, J. F., 2015. Biological and environmental hazards, risks, and disasters.Elsevier.
Stohlgren, T. J., & Schnase, J. L., 2006. Risk analysis for biological hazards: what we need to know about invasive species. Risk Analysis: An International Journal, 26(1), 163-173.
T. Easton, K. Carlyle, J. Anderson, and M. James., 2011. "Simulating the Spread of an Epidemic in a Small Rural Kansas Town," International Journal of Artificial Life Research (IJALR), vol. 2, pp. 95-104.
United Nations. (2015. Sendai framework for disaster risk reduction 2015–2030.
Wilder-Smith, A.; Chiew, C.J.; Lee, V.J., 2020. Can we contain the covid-19 outbreak with the same measures as for SARS? Lancet Infect. Dis.
World Health Organization., 2020. Considerations for public health and social measures in the workplace in the context of COVID-19: annex to considerations in adjusting public health and social measures in the context of COVID-19, 10 May 2020 (No. WHO/2019-nCoV/Adjusting_PH_measures/Workplaces /2020.1).  World Health Organization.
Wu, A., Peng, Y., Huang, B., Ding, X., Wang, X., Niu, P., et al., 2020. Genome composition and divergence of the novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV) originating in China. Cell Host Microbe 27, 325–328.