Analysis and Location of Temporary Housing Using Integration of Analytic Network Process (ANP) and Geographical Information Systems (GIS)

Document Type : Research Article


Tarbiat Modares University


One of the most important aspects of urban planning and management in Iran, is disaster planning management, because many regions of the country are vulnerable to natural disasters, especially earthquakes. Many Iranians are losing their lives each year because of this disaster. For this, Constructing of temporary housing is one of the most important steps in the process of disaster management. While the construction of temporary housing can be an appropriate response to the needs of homeless people, is an opportunity to make a fundamental reconstruction. In addition to broad social benefits, proper planning for these constructions can also reduce social costs to the vast amount. In the disaster literature, the provision of shelter and housing for victims falls along a continuum from pre-disaster emergency sheltering to permanent re-housing, which are classified into three or four groups. The three categories that are usually arrayed along this continuum include emergency shelters, temporary housing, and permanent (or replacement) housing. There are two different approaches for the temporary housing of three-step (emergency shelters, temporary housing, and permanent housing) or a two-step (emergency shelters and permanent housing) process. Select two or three-stages approaches due to the situation is different. This paper is seeking to apply the Analytic Network Process (ANP) and Geographic Information Systems (GIS) to locate temporary housing sites in Municipality of Region 16 in Tehran Metropolis. Thus, three-step approach to living individuals has been chosen. Because the people who are living in temporary housing provide the time required for reconstruction principle.
Methods and Materials
The Analytic Network Process (ANP) is considered as the One of the newest methods in Multi Criteria Decision Making process that nowadays be widely used in the field of scientific researches. This method has been proposed by Thomas .L .Saaty. He stated that ANP is an essential step in the decision-making process considering its reversible structure. This stage, with all of its pros and cons, was a missing step in the decision-making process. The traditional approach acted imperfectly because of its linear structure. Thus, the most important distinction between this method and AHP is the efficacy and effectiveness of criteria on each other and the analysis on nonlinear relations and internal and external relationships and interrelations between the criteria and indicators of.
In general, the locating temporary housing centers are complex issues which include several variables and criteria. Therefore, Multi Criteria Decision Making (MCDM) can be used for measuring the importance of effective factors on locating activities temporary housing as one of the most appropriate methods.
There are different steps for applying this method. Therefore, this technique and its main steps are introduced. First, making a model and a structure in which the subject matter is clearly stated and is analyzed within a logical system such as network. This network structure can be regulated and formed by decision-makers and through methods such as brainstorming or mathematical techniques like DEMATEL. The second step includes the formation of comparison binary matrix and extracting the priority vectors. This step is similar to the Analytical Hierarchy Process. Finally, the third step consists of forming the Meta-Matrix. Then the article introduce the variables affecting the field of housing and shelter after disasters (24 index and in the 4 criteria), as it has pointed to use this model in the study (16 in Tehran).
Results and Conclusion
The results of findings show that among the indicators studied; three indicators per capita service levels, possession costs and the present land use were the most important variables, and the three indicators adjacent to the passageways and road networks, polluting industries and strong power boundary were the lowest importance in the process of selecting locations for habitation to homeless people in the related to the decision making from the perspective of planners itself. In addition, according to the method and the selected indicators have been identified the Beesat and 22 Farvardin parks as the most appropriate locations for establishing the temporary housing sites.


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